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Music Quiz

趣味問答題

This man was for 35 years the Principal Conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra (1954-89), during which time he became arguably the most famous - and certainly most highly-paid - conductor in the world. He was criticised by many for his membership of the Nazi Party in Germany during the 1930s, although whether this was primarily a result of his ruthless determination to advance his career, or whether he was a genuine sympathiser with Nazism, is still a matter for debate.

這名男子曾做為柏林交響樂團的首席指揮35年(1954-1989),在此期間,他可以說是世界上最有名,最高薪的指揮家。他被人最多詬病的是,在20世紀30年代,他曾是德國納粹黨的黨員。雖然這是否為了維持自己的音樂生涯,又或是真的同情納粹主義,仍然是一個值得商榷的問題。

1)Wilhelm Furtwangler 2Herbert von Karajan     3Clemens Krauss       4 Felix Weingartner

1)威廉·富特文格勒         2)赫伯特·冯·卡拉扬            3)克莱门斯克劳斯         4费利克斯·魏因加特纳

Please choose the correct answer, and write in the box below.

請選擇正確答案,寫在下面的表格裡

Note: Please fill out the fields marked with an asterisk.

The following question from "The Guardian" already with an unhappy answer, please just read and think about it. Thanks.

 

以下這條問題來自衛報,已經有了令人不愉快的答案,請你只是閱讀和思考,謝謝!

Why so many orchestra players are quitting the business?

 

為甚麼很多交響樂團的樂手都退出了演奏生涯?

 

The money's terrible, the stress is awful and the music is plain boring. No wonder so many of Britain's orchestra players are choosing to hang up their bows.

 

- Anna Price Answered.

 

可怕的收入,難以承受的壓力,平淡無味的演奏,難怪這麼多英國樂手選擇收起來他們的琴弓,退出音樂生涯。

 

- 衛報樂評家安娜·普萊斯

 

 

Pit of despair 絕望的深淵

 

Morris Stemp used to play second violin with the Halle, Britain's longest established symphony orchestra. "When you hear an orchestra, imagine being inside that sound," he says. "How hot is the surface of the sun? Very hot. But the middle of the sun is hotter." He likens the buzz of live performance to a drug. "It feeds the soul," he says.

 

Stemp left the orchestra last year. He may have loved the heat of performing live, but he didn't like the lack of prospects for promotion and the anti-social hours. Or the pay, of course. After 15 years at the top of his profession, four years at music college and a lifetime of playing the violin, his salary was £25,000. And there was little chance of it improving much (although he is at pains to stress that orchestras such as the Halle do strive hard on their members' behalf; it's just that their hands are tied by the level of income they receive).

 

Stories such as Stemp's are far from rare. A recent survey of orchestral members carried out by the Musicians' Union made for unhappy reading. Work undertaken by orchestra players to supplement their pay packets includes aromatherapy, odd-jobbing, taxi-driving, childcare and cleaning. These are highly trained professionals at the very top of their field. When was the last time your solicitor popped over to scrub the kitchen floor?

 

Meanwhile, the problems of stress, bullying and burnout have reached such a pitch that the Association of British Orchestras has just announced a Healthy Orchestra Charter.

 

One could argue that in this country we do not get the orchestras we deserve: we get far, far better than that. And it is the players who are subsidising us. This is an assessment Bill Kerr of the Musicians' Union would agree with. String players are the rank and file of the orchestra, the infantry. Of the 600 or so orchestral string players in full-time work across the country, few earn more than £25,000 a year. Many are on much less. Kerr thinks we are a philistine nation; he points to orchestral rates of pay in western Europe, where a premier-league player can earn up to £50,000. In America, where there is no state funding for the arts and orchestras rely mainly on private sponsorship, the average starting salary is $58,000 (£32,805), more than one and a half times that of British recruits.

 

But it's not just the money and lack of career advancement that prompts some players to hang up their bows. Kerr was also an orchestral violinist. "I just got bored," he says. I must look shocked, because he adds that although the music itself wasn't dull, the popular repertoire comes round regularly and the job becomes routine.

 

A successful rank-and-file violinist must be an invisible cog in the machine, an imperceptible member of a crack team. If your voice can be heard above the others, you're no good, a "wrecker", someone who disturbs the delicate ecology of the section. Kerr says drily that the ideal orchestral player would have no personality at all. The self-effacement necessary to be a successful section musician plays against a 21st-century consciousness, he adds: in fact, the life is quite feudal. No soloists here, thank you; no divas, no individuals. "It requires a particular type of discipline but no imagination," he says. "Technique, but not intellect." Stemp agrees: "To be told every day to play a passage in a way you might not agree with - it's like being told to sing out of tune. The notes get played but without your own feeling. And the money is so poor that if you lose your artistic integrity, what have you got?"

 

A music administrator, who asks not to be named, says to me: "Those string players, they don't know they're born." Regular work, pension, permanent contract in a freelance universe, as much teaching work as they can handle ... and all for doing what they love. She's an amateur musician, too. So I ask her if she ever wanted to be a professional player. "No," she says. "My teacher told me it was a horrible life. 'Keep it for fun,' he said."

 

David Williams was with the London Symphony Orchestra for 20 years and says that "music is a fantastic hobby but difficult to do every day for a living". When he was nine, his headmaster asked if anyone wanted to play the violin and he put his hand up. "I wanted a fiddle underneath my chin, I had no interest in anything else," he says. "I made a beeline for the music."

 

For the son of a north Wales farming family, playing the violin offered a welcome alternative to tending sheep. The violin was a beautiful shape, too; it looked lovely. And it came naturally to him, he says. As naturally as talking. He loved playing in front of an audience at school, loved making the girls cry. At 11, he went to the local eisteddfod and in a field of mud, an orchestra was playing. "I was gobsmacked by these people in penguin suits. It was the LSO. I'll never forget."

 

Williams went on to join the orchestra from the Royal Academy, but in the end the pressure got to him and he left. He now designs bespoke computer software for dental surgeries. All those years of training, hours a day for years on end, talent I can only gawp at, and now he picks up his instrument once, maybe twice a year. Can the experience really have been so awful that it put him off playing? "It's difficult to relax. Even in an amateur orchestra you must be note perfect otherwise people might think: how on earth was he in the LSO? I can leave the fiddle in its case for months on end. I just don't think of it."

 

A musician's confidence is easily eroded; happy and confident players are good players, and the reverse is also true. Williams describes the orchestra as a big family of 80 members all thrown together in a strange and unreal situation. "When it's playing, there is a high electrical charge, especially in live performance when the adrenaline flows. You become an instrument, you become one, the body of the orchestra. There is an alchemy at play when you are surrounded by a pool of talent and it all comes together, a miraculous, unconscious thing."

But these people are musicians, not trained to deal with personnel problems and in a self-governing orchestra such as the LSO, there can be conflict of interest, which in this confined and under-ventilated world can make working life intolerable.

 

- Chinese translation by Terrie Dai

 

莫里斯·斯丹普在英國歷史最悠久的哈雷交響樂團演奏第二小提琴,去年,他離開了樂團。


15年的樂團演奏生涯,包括四年音樂學院的學習,他的年薪曾是£25,000,大概也不會晉升了,他選擇退出了音樂生涯。

 

故事如斯丹普的不罕見,最近一項音樂家的不愉快的調查顯示,樂團成員為了幫補生計,不得不做一些與音樂無關的工作,如芳香療法治療師,打散工,出租車司機,照顧幼兒和清潔工等等。試想想,這些都是訓練有素的專業人士,曾在自己的領域達到最尖端。有誰聽過,一個專業的律師來擦洗廚房地板?

 

同時,壓力,欺凌,職業倦怠感已經超越了底線,英國交響樂團協會剛剛公佈了“健康的樂團憲章”。

 

這是一個對音樂家們的評估,而音樂家協會的負責人比爾·克爾贊同這些說法。大約600位全職弦樂演奏家在全國各地的樂團工作,很少有超過£25,000一年的薪金,克爾認為我們是一個世劊的國家。他指出,在西歐,一個樂隊首席,可以賺取5萬英鎊的年薪。在美國,沒有藝術團體和樂團主要依賴私人贊助,普通音樂教師的起薪是相當於三萬三千多英鎊,幾乎超過英國新樂手們的薪金的一倍半。

 

 

有人可能會說,在這個國家,我們沒有足夠優秀的樂團,這還差的很遠呢,是誰在補貼我們的樂手?

 

但是,也不是完全因為金錢和晉升機會,樂手們才收起了他們的琴弓。克爾是一個管弦樂團的小提琴手,“我只是覺得無聊,”他說:“必須有令人興奮的演奏曲目,雖然音樂本身並不沉悶,但是總是不厭其煩的重複演奏廣受歡迎的曲目,讓日常生活都變得重複而沒有新意。”

 

一個成功的職業演奏家,在樂團裡應該像機器裡的齒輪,潛移默化的影響着團隊其他成員,而令其成為一支精幹的團隊。

  

克爾說,樂手們沒有個性可言,其實,生活是一個大眾的領域,沒有誰是誰生活的主角,沒有獨奏家,沒有女主角。他說:“這是一個特別的形式,不是只靠想像。”他說:“不能只靠技術,如果你的演奏,不能發揮出像從心裡唱出的調子那樣,沒有自己的感覺,既然金錢已經這麼貧乏,再失去了藝術上的滿足感,請問,你還有甚麼?”

 

有一位不想公開姓名的音樂行政人員,她對我說:“這些弦樂演奏員們,他們甚至不知道自己的存在性。”沒有定期的工作,沒有養老金,沒有固定的合同,他們只是自由職業者,只能盡可能多一點的找學生來教課,盡力保持住做這個他們最愛的職業。她是一位業餘音樂家,我問她,可希望成為一個專業音樂家?“不!”她說:“我的老師告訴我,這是可怕的生活,只能當它是個興趣,玩玩罷了。”

威廉姆斯從皇家音樂學院畢業後加入了倫敦交響樂團,但最終因為壓力,他離開了。現在他為牙科診所設計手術電腦軟件。多年來,他每小時,每天的練習,而他每年只拿起他的樂器1-2次,如此難堪的經歷,令他中止了演奏。即使做一個業餘的樂手,也要注意完美的演奏,否則人們會說:他是如何在倫敦交響樂團演奏的?這種情況持續了一個多月。

 

大衛·威廉姆斯在倫敦交響樂團已經20年了,他說:“音樂是一個很棒的愛好,但是以它來維持生活很難。”當他9歲的時候,他的教授問:“如果有誰想拉小提琴,請舉手。”我當時只關心我下巴下面的小提琴,其它任何事情都引不起我的興趣,我直線式的奔向了音樂。

 

對於一個威爾士北部農民的兒子,拉小提琴代替了牧羊。小提琴形狀很美麗,可愛,它自然的來到他的生活中。他喜歡在學校裡觀眾面前的演奏,喜歡讓女孩子們聽了他的音樂流淚。11歲時,他去了當地的音樂節,當時樂團的演奏令我吃驚,這些人怎麼能做到這樣?這是倫敦交響樂團,我永遠也不會忘記。”

 

一個音樂家的信心是很容易被侵蝕的;快樂和自信的樂手都是優秀的樂手,否則相反。威廉姆斯形容樂團像一個80名成員的大家庭,忽然把他們扔到一個陌生的和不真實的環境。“當你現場演奏,血液像高壓電流一樣流動,你和你的樂器合一,像樂團這個身體的一部分。可是你的努力和才華只是為了賺取金錢,這一切就變成得毫無意義了。

 

作為一個立志為音樂獻身的人,卻在一個充滿利益關係的環境工作,是難以忍受的。



                                                                                                

 

 

  - 戴莉中文翻譯

 

Tchaikovsky Hamlet Overture, London Symphony Orchestra, Valery Gergiev Proms 2007 1/2

倫敦交響樂團演奏柴可夫斯基的《哈姆雷特》序曲

Last issue's question:

What is the composer Monteverdi's first name?

 

作曲家蒙特威爾第的名字叫甚麼?

 

A) Giacomo

 

B) Antonin

 

C) Bela

 

D) Claudio

 

 

The correct answer is: D) Claudio