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Music Quiz

Who was first to compose the symphonic poem?

誰最先創作了“交響音詩”這個音樂形式的作品?

 

A symphonic poem or tone poem is a piece of orchestral music in a single continuous section (a movement) in which the content of a poem, a story or novel, a painting, a landscape or another (non-musical) source is illustrated or evoked.

交响诗(symphonic poem),一种单乐章的标题交响音乐,脱胎于19世纪(1850年)的音乐会序曲,强调诗意和哲理的表现。交响诗的形式不拘一格,常根据奏鸣曲式的原则自由发挥,是按照文学、绘画、历史故事和民间传说等构思作成的大型管弦乐曲。它是标题音乐的主要体裁之一。通常多采用单乐章的曲式,结构较自由。音诗、音画、交响童话等,这些也是与交响诗相类似的音乐体裁。

Please chose the correct answer 請選擇正確答案

a) R. Strauss 理查 施特勞斯

 

b) F. Liszt 李斯特

c) Z. Noskowski 齊格蒙特 諾斯克斯基

 

d) F. Chopin 肖邦

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Last issue's question: 

 

Who composed Carmina Burana?

誰創作了《布蘭詩歌》?

The correct answer is:

 

 

A. Carl Orff

 

 

 Who is this portrait

 

這幅肖像畫的是誰

This is Luciano Pavarotti

Liszt - Mazeppa Symphonic Poem

李斯特的“瑪捷帕 交響音詩”

Franz Liszt was the inventor of the symphonic poem (also known as the tone poem), a form in which a literary or other nonmusical source provides a narrative foundation for a single-movement orchestral work. Liszt's symphonic poems, however, were not exclusively dependent on their source material: the composer's goal was more to distill the essence of the poetic concept in music rather than to exactly recreate it. Mazeppa (1851) is the sixth of the twelve symphonic poems Liszt wrote during his tenure as Grand Ducal Director of Music Extraordinary at Weimar. All twelve works are dedicated to Princess Carolyne Sayn-Wittgenstein.

The story upon which the work is based is that of Ivan Mazeppa, a Polish nobleman of the seventeenth century who was a page in the court of the King of Poland. Mazeppa became entangled in a love affair with the young wife of a count; when the count discovered this, he tied Mazeppa to the back of a wild horse and chased the horse into the desert. The horse eventually collapsed, and the half-dead Mazeppa was rescued by the Cossacks. He stayed with them and in due time fought with them against the Russian czar Peter the Great, eventually becoming the Cossack leader.

In his student days in Paris, Liszt became familiar with the works of Byron and Hugo, both of whom wrote poems on Mazeppa. The story contained many attractions for the young composer, including a spectrum of characteristically Romantic literary elements: human suffering, catastrophe, and triumph. Mazeppa is a much altered and richly orchestrated version of Liszt's same-titled "Transcendental" piano etude. Aside from purely orchestrational concerns, Liszt's changes to his pre-existing music served primarily to fit the work more closely to the narrative of the Mazeppa story. The  music starts with the onomatopoetic sounds of the horse being whipped into flight. The well-known "Mazeppa theme" appears in the trombones and strings, continuing unabated in numerous variations until the fall of Mazeppa's horse, which is represented by a tutti chord punctuated by triplet timpani strokes. The concluding section, which concerns itself with Mazeppa's rescue, culminates in a heroic march on a theme the composer borrowed from his earlier Arbeiterchor for bass voice, male chorus, and piano (1848). The march theme combines victoriously with the "Mazeppa theme" for an exciting, if somewhat bombastic, finale.

 

 

 

 

《第六交响诗“玛捷帕”》Symphonic Poem No.6 "Mazeppa" S.100 ,始作于1851年,于1854年修订,1856年出版,题献给卡罗琳•维根斯坦公主。这是李斯特根据雨果的同名长诗《玛捷帕》而作。1821年,李斯特为钢琴演奏创作了四十八首练习曲,1837年他又将其中已出版的十二首练习曲(1826年出版)重新整理修改,计划写成二十四首华丽钢琴练习曲重新出版,但实际上只完成了十二首。1840年李斯特又将其中的第四首取出修订后冠名“玛捷帕”单独出版,并将其题献给雨果。这首钢琴曲《玛捷帕》在音乐内容的构思上与雨果及拜伦等其他作家所写的传说故事基本相符,只是在结构上稍有改变。1851年,李斯特开始将这首钢琴曲改编成交响诗,并在终曲中增写了新的哥萨克主题,这样,交响诗在篇幅上就比钢琴曲更大。交响诗《玛捷帕》最后完成的时间约在1854年春。同年四月,在为魏玛宫廷管弦乐团募集基金时,进行了首次演出。

玛捷帕是乌克兰的民族英雄,曾在波兰国王约翰•卡基米鲁的宫廷里当仆人,因与其贵妇人有接触,被贵族发现,贵族们将他衣服脱光,用一匹马拖向郊野外。后来,奄奄一息的玛捷帕幸遭解救。又当上了哥萨克士兵。由于他勇敢、办事认真,后来成为哥萨克的司令官。这个故事表现了一个普通人的英勇气概及不屈不挠的奋斗精神。李斯特自小就喜欢玛捷帕的英雄行为和坚毅性格,在这部交响诗中,他揭示了人类从黑暗走向光明、从苦难走向胜利的普遍规律。

第一部分在有节制的小快板速度开始。在管弦乐器斩钉截铁奏出的强和弦后,弦乐器在小调上继续奏出突进的三连音音型,表现了玛捷帕被贵族缚在野马上任其日夜奔驰在荒野的情景,残酷的刑法使他疼痛难忍。不就,在这个音型的上面,出现了木管上行的动机,继而又加进了由大管和大提琴演奏的与之相冲突的可怕的下行动机,然后音乐逐渐增加力度,当达到顶点时,铜管以强烈的主题刻划出玛捷帕刚毅的性格。乐曲仍向激烈可怕的程度上发展,忽然其中又闪现出鲜明、反应玛捷帕性格的主题,人们可以明显地感受到尽管玛捷帕遭受着无限残忍的折磨,但他并没有屈服。不一会,疾驰的突进渐渐慢下来,经过几个昼夜,人马都精疲力尽,在荒无人烟的地方倒下了,木管奏出了非常柔和的旋律,然而其中夹杂着反映玛捷帕刚毅性格的主题,最后这个主题经过变形,静静地消失在定音鼓声中,第一部分结束。

第二部分以行板的速度开始。在弦乐和木管声部奏出了断断续续的半音化的短小旋律,这个旋律表现了饱受折磨的玛捷帕奄奄一息的形象,简短的第二部分结束。

第三部分在突然响起的小号的号角性音调中进入。这是哥萨克士兵的进军号,玛捷帕九死一生,得救了。在这部分中,描述了玛捷帕的复活与胜利。雄壮有力的玛捷帕主题第一次在D大调上完整地呈示出来,鲜明地刻画了玛捷帕的英雄性格。从这里也可看出李斯特在许多交响诗中所表现的“从黑暗走向光明”、“从苦难走向胜利”的思想。最后乐曲在激昂的高潮中结束。

1855年,李斯特完成了该交响诗的双钢琴版本,编号为S.640 ,四手联弹版则完成于1874年,编号为S.594 。