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The Great Music

Rococo

洛可可

François Couperin: Sixième Concert, Gonzalo X. Ruiz, baroque oboe

Rameau, Rondeau des Indes Galantes

Rococo less commonly roccoco, also referred to as "Late Baroque", is an 18th-century artistic movement and style, which affected several aspects of the arts including painting, sculpture, architecture, interior design, decoration, literature, music and theatre. The Rococo developed in the early part of the 18th century in Paris, France as a reaction against the grandeur, symmetry and strict regulations of the Baroque, especially that of the Palace of Versailles.

 

In such a way, Rococo artists opted for a more jocular, florid and graceful approach to Baroque art and architecture. Rococo art and architecture in such a way was ornate and made strong usage of creamy, pastel-like colours, asymmetrical designs, curves and gold. Unlike the more politically focused Baroque, the Rococo had more playful and often witty artistic themes. With regards to interior decoration, Rococo rooms were designed as total works of art with elegant and ornate furniture, small sculptures, ornamental mirrors, and tapestry complementing architecture, reliefs, and wall paintings. The Rococo additionally played an important role in theatre. In the book The Rococo, it is written that there was no other culture which "has produced a wittier, more elegant, and teasing dialogue full of elusive and camouflaging language and gestures, refined feelings and subtle criticism" than Rococo theatre, especially that of France.

Towards the end of the 18th century, Rococo started to fall out of fashion, and it was largely supplanted by the Neoclassic style. In 1835 the Dictionary of the French Academy stated that the word Rococo "usually covers the kind of ornament, style and design associated with Louis XV's reign and the beginning of that of Louis XVI". It includes therefore, all types of art produced around the middle of the 18th century in France. The word Rococo is seen as a combination of the French rocaille, meaning stone, and coquilles, meaning shell, due to reliance on these objects as motifs of decoration.

 

The term Rococo may also be interpreted as a combination of the word "barocco" (an irregularly shaped pearl, possibly the source of the word "baroque") and the French "rocaille" (a popular form of garden or interior ornamentation using shells and pebbles), and may be used to describe the refined and fanciful style that became fashionable in parts of Europe during the eighteenth century.

Owing to Rococo love of shell-like curves and focus on decorative arts, some critics used the term to derogatively imply that the style was frivolous or merely modish. When the term was first used in English in about 1836, it was a colloquialism meaning "old-fashioned". As a matter of fact, the style received harsh criticism, and was seen by some to be superficial and of poor taste, especially when compared to neoclassicism; despite this, it has been praised for its aesthetic qualities, and since the mid-19th century, the term has been accepted by art historians. While there is still some debate about the historical significance of the style to art in general, Rococo is now widely recognized as a major period in the development of European art.

 

 

洛可可风格起源于18世纪的法国,最初是为了反对宫廷的繁文缛节艺术而兴起的。洛可可Rococo这个字是从法文Rocaillecoquilles合并而来。Rocaille 是一种混合贝壳与小石子制成的室内装饰物,而coquilles则是贝壳。洛可可后来被新古典主义取代。

 

 

洛可可最先出现于装饰艺术和室内设计中。路易十五登基,给宫廷艺术家和一般艺术时尚带来了变化。在老国王在任的晚期,巴洛克设计逐渐被有着更多曲线和自然形象的较轻的元素取代。这些元素在Niclas Pineau的建筑设计上有明显的表现。在摄政时期(1715-1723年,路易十五还是个孩子,政权由其叔摄政),宫廷生活不再局限于凡尔赛宫,艺术风格亦随之而转变,最初在皇宫,然后是整个法国上层社会。纤细和轻快的洛可可风格设计被视为是伴随着路易十五的过度统治而来。

 

相较于前期的巴洛克与后期的新古典,洛可可反映出当时的社会享乐、奢华以及爱欲交织的风气。除此之外,此派画家受到当时外来文化的启发,在创作中添加不少富有异国风情的特色。

1730年代,洛可可在法国高度发展,并受到中国风的影响。这种风格从建筑和家具蔓延到油画和雕塑,表现在让-安东尼·华托和佛朗索瓦·布歇的作品中。洛可可保留了巴洛克风格复杂的形象和精细的图腾。不过在这一点上,它已经开始与大量不同的特征融合,包括东方风格和不对称组合。

 

这种艺术形式在法国迅速蔓延至德国和西班牙等地区,并与当地的风格融合。18世纪,英国一直视洛可可风格为“法国品味”,较少用于建筑上,主要表现在银器、陶瓷等。当时意大利移民的艺术家像Bagutti和Artari都以石膏作品尝试将洛可可风格带入英国。而爱尔兰的法兰契尼兄弟也作出同样的尝试。随着拿破仑在法国的崛起,洛可可被拿破仑从法国剔除出去。

 

但到约1830年代,洛可可风潮正逐渐退去时,英国人才开始要“重振路易十四的歌德式风格”,——亦即把洛可可搞错了,并且以大量的金钱,购买经过过份涨价的二手洛可可风格物品,其实当时这些物品在法国几乎无法出售。

 

洛可可风格在音乐上是非常特别而短暂的。约在1720-1775年,洛可可风格与其他的音乐风格同时流行。它发展于十八世纪前半期的法国,音乐特色是轻快、刻意、装饰华丽——与巴洛克时期那夸张和庞大的性质成对比。这种风格先出现在法国的键盘音乐中,巴洛克晚期的作曲家如库普兰(Couperin)、拉莫(Rameau)、泰里曼(Telemann)、多曼尼高.史卡拉第(Domenico Scarlatti)以及古典乐派前期如约翰·斯塔米茨(Johann Stamitz)和利奥波德·莫扎特(Leopold Mozart)等都运用了这种手法。后来,这种风格传到德国,并孕育了西方古典乐时期。

 

G.F.Telemann koncert G.dur, Jitka Hosprová a Collegium Českých Filharmoniků